Nanoparticles As Clinical Drug Carriers.....#Biotech #Science #STEM #RubixStrategies #Healthcare #Health

 

ABSTRACT
    Nanoparticles are being widely used to control and direct the biomolecules to destined region of body, which otherwise, could be critical to living cells. Mechanism followed by nanoparticulate systems relies on the drug release and polymer biodegradation factors. Fullerene for HIV protease and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) for mycobacterium tuberculosis are among the wide range applications of nanoparticles. Toxicities of solvent based formulations are also being avoided by nanoparticles techniques using natural pathways such as albumin for targeted drug delivery against tumors. Besides that, It’s being observed that inhalation of nanoparticles is also associated with multiple respiratory diseases including pulmonary inflammation.


INTRODUCTION
Solvent based drug delivery means are responsible for adverse toxicities for normal tissues of the body. Taxanes, for example, are observed to cause hypersensitivity reactions and neuropathy. Emerging technology nanoparticles are, however, now being widely used to control and direct the biomolecules (e. g drugs) to destined region of body. The key advantages of using nanoparticles include increased bioavailability, enhanced resistance within body and targeted drug delivery. Such nanotherapeutics/diagnostics will allow a better understanding of diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases as well as genetic disorders. 
Mechanism followed by nanoparticulate systems relies on the drug release and polymer biodegradation factors. In general drug release rate depends on following parameters:
•    Drug’s solubility
•    Desorption of adsorbed drug
•    Diffusion of drug through nanoparticles
•    Nanoparticles erosion


LITERATURE REVIEW
    Several nanoparticles being used as drug carrier includes fullerene, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs), liposomes, Nano-structured Lipid Carriers(NLC), nano shells, quantum dots, dendrimers etc.
    Fullerenes also known as buckyball have antiviral activities due to its antioxidant activity and unique molecular structure. Fullerene derivatives make complex with HIV-proteases and inhibit it (Friedman et al 1993; Sijbesma et al 1993). Dendrofullerene 1 has highest antiprotease activity (Brettreich and Hirsch 1998) while trans-2 isomer is a strong inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. 

Figure 1 dendrofullerene and trans-2 isomer of fullerene

Figure 1 dendrofullerene and trans-2 isomer of fullerene


     Oral administration of solid lipid nanoparticles against tuberculosis resulted in sustained supply of drug as well as increased effectiveness. (Pandy et al).  Single oral administration of drug to mouse was detected till 4-9 days in blood circulation in contrast to the free drug which was cleared within 24 hours from blood.  


    Liposomal amphotericin B is affective against fungal and moulds infections. Similarly, effectiveness of liposomal polymixin B was compared with free polymixin against pulmonary infection. Animals were killed before 3rd free drug instillation. On contrary to that animal which was introduced with liposomal polymixin B showed decreased bacterial counts.

Figure 2. Comparison of bacterial count

Figure 2. Comparison of bacterial count


 
    Furthermore, toxicities of solvent based formulations are also being avoided by nanoparticles techniques using albumin for targeted drug delivery against tumors. Metastatic breast cancer is treated nowadays by using albumin bound paclitaxel due to its more reliability as compared to solvent-based paclitaxel.


HAZARDS OF NANOPARTICLES
    Increased exposure to nanoparticles could be hazardous for humans and results in deposition in fragile respiratory epithelial structures. It also causes pulmonary inflammation. Mechanism includes inward movement of Ca ions, afflicted phagocytosis and changes in cytoskeletal structures. 


CONCLUSION
Nanoparticles are considered as emerging drug carriers and are responsible for enhanced efficacy of drugs. These are being effectively utilized against bacterial and fungal infections as well as in antitumor therapies. Many nanoparticles based drugs are already approved by FDA and several others are being considered. Unfortunately, this system has also some drawbacks which may result in certain infections in body. However continuous research is being done worldwide and there are increased chances of betterment in near future.

Reginald Swift